Components of Injection Moulding Machine

Nov 10, 2023


Injection moulding machines play a crucial role in the manufacturing industry, enabling businesses to produce high-quality plastic products efficiently and cost-effectively. Understanding the components of these machines is essential for anyone involved in the industry. In this article, we will explore the various components of an injection moulding machine, their functions, and how they contribute to the success of your business.

Injection Unit

The injection unit is responsible for melting and injecting the plastic material into the mould. It consists of the hopper, screw or plunger, and the heating and cooling systems. The hopper stores the plastic resin, which is then fed into the screw or plunger. As the screw or plunger rotates or moves forward, the resin is melted and transformed into a molten state. The heating and cooling systems ensure consistent temperature control to achieve optimal plastic flow and part quality.

Clamping Unit

The clamping unit is responsible for securely holding the mould in place during the injection and cooling process. It consists of the mould, clamping mechanism, and hydraulic systems. The mould contains cavities and cores, which define the shape of the plastic part. The clamping mechanism applies force to keep the mould closed during injection and opens it after the part is cooled. The hydraulic systems power the clamping mechanism, enabling precise control and adjustments.

Hydraulic System

The hydraulic system is a critical component of an injection moulding machine. It provides the necessary power and control for various machine functions. The system includes a hydraulic pump, accumulator, pressure control valves, and actuators. The hydraulic pump generates pressure to drive the movements of the injection unit and the clamping mechanism. The accumulator helps maintain consistent pressure levels, while the pressure control valves regulate the pressure for different stages of the injection process. Actuators convert hydraulic energy into mechanical motion, enabling precise and controlled movements.

Control System

The control system is the brain of the injection moulding machine, responsible for monitoring and controlling various parameters to ensure optimal operation and part quality. It consists of a controller, sensors, and actuators. The controller receives input from the sensors, such as temperature, pressure, and position, and adjusts the machine parameters accordingly. It also communicates with the hydraulic system and other machine components to coordinate their actions. Modern injection moulding machines often have advanced control systems with user-friendly interfaces for easy operation and monitoring.

Extrusion and Injection Systems

The extrusion and injection systems are crucial for plastic material processing and injection into the mould. The extrusion system consists of the hopper, heating elements, and a screw or plunger that continuously melts and homogenizes the plastic resin. This system ensures a consistent flow of molten plastic into the injection system. The injection system includes the barrel, nozzle, and the screw or plunger that delivers the molten plastic into the mould cavities. These systems work together to achieve precise control over the injection process, ensuring accurate part replication and minimizing material waste.

Power and Drive System

The power and drive system provides the necessary energy and motion to operate the various components of an injection moulding machine. It typically includes an electric motor, gearbox, and drive mechanism. The electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, driving the gearbox that adjusts and transfers power to the different machine functions. The drive mechanism, such as belts or gears, helps distribute the power to the relevant components, enabling smooth and efficient operation.


Understanding the components of an injection moulding machine is crucial for businesses in the manufacturing industry. Each component plays a vital role in ensuring efficient operation, high-quality products, and overall business success. Quick Parts, the leading provider of metal fabrication and 3D printing services, understands the importance of reliable injection moulding machines and offers cutting-edge solutions for various industries. With their expertise and comprehensive service offerings, you can confidently rely on Quick Parts to meet your manufacturing needs and stay ahead of the competition.

components of injection moulding machine